Toyota Corolla History 11th Generation E160 E170 2012-2018

Toyota Corolla E160 – Eleventh Generation Japan Model

11th Generation E160 Model was released for Japanese market in two models: Corolla sedan named Corolla Axio and Corolla wagon Corolla Fielder. This 11th Generation had slightly smaller exterior dimensions and is easier to drive in narrow alleys and parking lots for the targeted elderly drivers.

The new Corolla Axio is offered in 1300 cc 1NR-FE or 1500 cc 1NZ-FE V4 engines; front or all-wheel drive. The 1300 cc engine and AWD is only available in CVT transmission while 1500 cc in both manual and CVT transmissions.

The Corolla Fielder is offered in two V4 engines: the 1500 cc 1NZ-FE and 1800 cc 2ZR-FAE in CVT transmission. While the 1500 cc is available in both FWD and AWD variants, the 1800 cc is offered only in front-wheel drive. 2015 version of Axio was released in a new 2NR-FKE engine.

 Hybrid Corolla

In 2015 Toyota released 1500 cc hybrid versions of the Corolla Axio sedan and Corolla Fielder station wagon. 

Toyota Corolla 11th Generation International Version E170

In the global market Toyota released E170 in 2013 to replace E140/E150. E170 was quite different from the E160 Japanese model. It is larger with a unique body and interior and released with two basic front and rear styling treatments the first one for North American version and a more conservative design for all other markets. 1800 cc Corolla is offered in two power outputs: 132 hp/128 lb-ft for the L, LE and S versions, and 140 hp/126 lb-ft for the more efficient LE Eco derivative.

In 2017, Toyota released a hatchback version in the US called the Corolla iM featuring restyled front and rear ends, new infotainment systems and additional color choices. US Corolla comes with traction control and ESC, together with ABS, front side and curtain airbags plus driver knee airbag and passenger seat cushion airbag.

Toyota Corolla History First Generation E10 1966-1970

The first generation of Toyota Corolla was introduced in the Japanese market in 1966 with a very ambitious slogan, “The most wanted car by the market — presented to the world by bringing together the essence of Toyota’s technology‘.”

Little did Toyota or the world know that it will become world’s best selling sedan that will continue to dominate its segment for decades to come. It was designed to be a people’s car with many then new technologies. It came with a newly designed 1100 cc K pushrod engine.

Available in two distinct body styles (two- and four-door saloon, two-door estate), Corolla displayed great attention to detail and was lavishly equipped with features that were normally only seen on higher grade models. This first generation continued from 1966 to 1970 and was known as E10

It featured a sporty, floor-mounted gear lever that was remarkable at the time. Comfort was provided by separate bucket-type seats with firm padding, while the rear bench offered so much space that it was likened to a living room sofa. Although the car was classed as a compact vehicle, its elevated roof height made the interior feel exceptionally roomy.

The level of interest Corolla received on its debut was phenomenal. No matter which car it was compared to, its innovative features stood out. So much so that whenever one was delivered to its new owner, it drew an admiring crowd. Within three years Corolla became the top-selling vehicle in Japan.

corolla-1965

A PEOPLE’S CAR TO BE PROUD OF
The Corolla Sprinter was introduced as the fastback version in 1968. Development leader Tatsuo Hasegawa devised the concept for the Corolla in the latter half of 1962. Based on his experience with an earlier family called the Publica (1961 to 1978), Hasegawa proposed something entirely new.

The Publica was a car that pursued practical utility and economy and focused on a retail price of 360,000 Japanese Yen (the average monthly salary in 1961 was 26,000 Yen). However, to achieve this figure meant simplifying the specifications and features which led to stagnant vehicle sales and little support from the general public.

At that time, the purchase of a car was one of the dreams of the general public; and more than being an item of mere utility, they wanted a car to be proud of — something that portrayed a sense of luxury.

Hasegawa reflected on that period, stating: “Since that time, the market has demanded attractive vehicles — vehicles that don’t seem inferior when compared to others and even appear somewhat luxurious. If we consider these types of market needs, the Publica probably looked somewhat cheap.” He soon came to realise that existing components could not hope to meet the increasingly sophisticated demands of this era.

With that in mind, a concept was launched that called for a newly developed vehicle, including the engine and suspension. Full-scale developments started in 1963, though approval for the plan was not easily obtained. The development of a new vehicle required huge expenditure amounting to several billion yen. In addition, Toyota was experiencing rapid growth; each time a new vehicle was developed, equipment investments of several tens of billions of yen were made and new plants were constructed. For that reason alone, failures in new vehicle developments were not allowed, so only a cautious start was approved. At first, this was given for the development of a new engine. Eventually, the new Takaoka Plant was constructed at a cost of 30 billion Yen in order to take on the construction of the Corolla.

takaoka plant

ISSUES AND RESOLUTIONS

The initial plan established goals for a 1.0-litre engine that had a maximum output of 45PS at 5500rpm — considerable challenges at the time. While it was understood that an overhead cam (OHC) layout was an effective method in creating a high-performance engine, the team lacked experience in this area and abandoned the idea. Instead, an overhead valve (OHV) layout was selected, but by configuring the camshaft in the highest possible position within the cylinder block and shortening the push rod as much as possible, a concept was reached that achieved similar results to that of an OHC layout.

During this development period it was noted that 1.0-litre was swiftly becoming the standard engine displacement for family cars. So in order to ensure that Corolla maintained an air of superiority over its competitors the displacement was hastily expanded to 1.1-litre (1077cc). Interestingly, there was some uneasiness within the company about this additional 100cc because it would pitch the car into a higher tax bracket. However, after the vehicle’s release that concern proved unfounded — the Corolla and its brand new 1.1-litre ‘K’ engine was well accepted by customers. Indeed, K-series units went on to support Corolla models for the next 20 years.

With Hasegawa’s plan calling for numerous new developments and technologies, there were many opposing voices within the workforce, which brewed some trouble. One particular point of concern was in the positioning of the MacPherson strut front suspension. As this was the first application of this lightweight setup in a Japanese vehicle, the team had no points of reference from which to develop its own configuration.

To give an indication of how difficult new developments were, one prototype vehicle was only able to travel 500 metres before the suspension failed — a fact that proved difficult for Hasegawa to stomach, as he had the responsibility of encouraging the engineers. Nevertheless, prototypes were improved and tests were repeated time and time again. Two-and-a-half years later, the team had the setup perfected, and it continues to serve as the standard suspension configuration for many vehicles today. Meanwhile, at the rear end, a semi-floating type suspension was adopted that reduced the inherent squeaking noise that comes from leaf springs.

Corolla 01 front

THINKING GLOBAL FROM THE OUTSET

A year before the vehicle was released, Toyota executives considered a campaign of overseas expansion, including a plan to export Corolla to the United States. According to the Design Plan Policy, a document put together to summarise Corolla’s development concepts, Hasegawa stated: “In the future, the Corolla will compete both in Japan and overseas with European-made cars in the same class. Superiority of the Corolla over the competition will be ensured through performance and economic efficiency.” Therefore, right from its very early stages, development was focused on export, and it is evident that the team targeted Corolla to open up new markets and be competitive overseas.

line-off ceremony

TECHNOLOGY BOOSTS SPECIFICATION

On its launch the Corolla was only available as a two-door saloon. Soon afterwards, however, a four-door saloon and two-door ‘van’ (estate) model were added to the line-up for a total of three body styles. In terms of exterior appearance, a fresh image was targeted that was designed to symbolise the arrival of a ‘new era’ in Japan. For the first time by Toyota a semi-fastback style was adopted, with widespread use of curved surfaces that expressed an active, charming and faintly feminine appeal. In the brochure, Corolla was introduced as having a “creative design reflecting the simplicity of Japanese values.” Its style was fresh and sporty, and it truly captured the hearts of the general public.

To maintain the vehicle’s radiance, rare and advanced technology was adopted at the body preparation stage, namely a protective electrostatic coating added to the regular electrophoretic coating of the body. Meanwhile, the names of the body colors were based on classic mythology themes, using names of Greek and Roman gods such as Aphrodite White and Zeus Blue in an effort to conjure up images of magnificent dramas and culture.

Corolla 01 estate

Meanwhile, the engine line-up began with the 1.1-litre K engine, which generated a maximum output of 60PS at 6000rpm and 61 lb/ft torque at 3800rpm. Numerous revolutionary technologies were adopted into this unit, such as a five-bearing crankshaft that could endure high speeds and a high-mounted camshaft for higher performance. It was soon joined by a more powerful K-B version equipped with twin carburetors, and the K-D engine, which strove for enhanced output through a raised compression ratio. In the latter half of the model period, the 1.1-litre K-series engines were replaced with a range of expanded 1.2-litre (1166cc) 3K, 3K-B and 3K-D engines. The standard 3K unit generated a maximum output of 68PS at 6000rpm and 69 lb/ft torque at 3500rpm for improved mid-range pull and high-speed acceleration.

Sports car technology was adopted for the transmission, evidenced by the four-speed, fully synchronised manual transmission and floor-mounted gear lever. It was the first time that this type of transmission was adopted in a Japanese vehicle, so its direct-shift action must have felt like a revelation. A floor-mounted, two-speed automatic transmission (another first for Japan), plus a familiar steering column-mounted four-speed manual transmission were also made available.

Separate bucket-type seats materialised the Corolla’s sporty image for front passengers. In addition to having a sliding range of 120mm and a 16-step reclining mechanism, the seats could be fully reclined. Equipment normally found in high-grade executive vehicles, such as armrests, a centre console box, radio and heater, were also adopted into this family car to create a dramatically more comfortable interior.

When the Corolla was first released, drum brakes were fitted at the front and rear. Midway through the model period, front discs were installed on some models — another first in Japan’s family car market. In addition, safety measures were progressively enhanced during the model’s lifetime, including recessed, pull-type outside door handles, and multi-point seat belts. Original safety designs were incorporated from the outset, such as two-speed windscreen wipers, an impact absorbing steering wheel and column, headrests, and a handbrake warning lights.

Looking at the safety features that came as standard in the first-generation Corolla — to meet stringent U.S. standards and in anticipation of expanding exports — it is apparent that safety has always been an important factor in the development and construction of the Corolla model.

ADDITIONAL TECHNOLOGIES AND EQUIPMENT

* Curved glass harmonising with the gently rounded lines of the semi-fastback design
* Sporty round dials instead of conventional radio-type horizontal meters
* Door locks on passenger side and symmetrically-shaped keys
* Reversing lights for improved rear visibility
* Partially reinforced windscreen
* Detachable rear-view mirror
* Hazard warning lights
* Side ventilation

Corolla 01 drawing

Jim Autos Scholarship

Jim Autos Scholarship Essay Contest

Giving Back since 1911

We have been committed to serving humanity since its founding in 1911 by our great great grandfather. Whether it is through humanitarian aid or through our scholarship program, philanthropy has always been an extremely important part of our business philosophy.

We are now accepting applications for Jim Scholarship writing contest! Winner will be announced on December 1st of each calendar year.

Deadline: November 1 of every calendar year

Jim Autos is a worldwide car dealership with headquarters in Thailand and branches in United Kingdom, Australia, Dubai, Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore.

At Jim Autos, we value education of the next generation and are pleased to offer an annual essay scholarship contest in the amount of $500 for incoming and current students enrolling in high school, undergraduate, graduate, or post-graduate college program.

Jim Autos Thailand recognizes how each field of study produces individuals with unique skills that can benefit society in different ways. Keeping the scholarship open for all areas of study helps achieve this goal.

This scholarship fund is designed to help alleviate the financial burden that students often assume when pursuing higher education. By helping to make post secondary education a little more affordable, Jim Autos Thailand hopes that more youth will be able to achieve their career dreams.

How Can I Apply?

Applicants are asked to prepare a 500 – 1,000 word essay that talks about the ways in which vehicles with internal combustion engines can be replaced with vehicles with environment friendly engines.

Submissions should include: Your full name, age, phone number, address, and the name of the university you attend. You give us express consent to confirm your admission and attendance by contacting the college or university.

To apply, send an email including the above information and your essay to jim12cars@gmail.com with the subject line: Last Name, First Name – 2017 Jim Scholarship Essay Contest.

Who Can Apply?

Jim is seeking applications from current students who:

  • Are enrolled in secondary or post-secondary education in the upcoming semester
  • Are not a Jim Autos employee or related to an employee of Jim Autos
  • Age 18 and older

Application Deadline & Winner Selection

Applications are accepted from January 1 – November 1 every year. Any application received after the November 1 deadline will not be accepted.

The winner of the Jim Autos College Scholarship will be announced on December 1. Scholarship money will be sent via mail by check. Scholarship is non-renewable and is only good for one semester cycle. Recipients are only eligible to receive the scholarship once during their lifetime.

Disclaimer

By submitting an application to Jim Autos you certify that all the information you have provided is accurate and complete. You agree to transfer all rights and ownership of your essay and all submitted information to Jim Autos, whether or not you are selected as a winner. You also agree that your name, essay, and award amount may be used on our website, through announcements, or articles (i.e. social media, newsletter, etc) issued by Jim Autos. If you would like to remain anonymous whenever Jim publishes your essay you must request this in your initial submission.

The selection of winners is entirely at the discretion of Jim Autos. Winners will be contacted via the email address that was used to submit the application. There must be a minimum of ten qualified applicant submissions in order for a scholarship to be awarded. Scholarship checks that are not cashed will not be reissued; the unused money will be returned to the scholarship fund.